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Investigating a Higher Renewables Portfolio Standard in California

In an ambitious, forward-looking study jointly sponsored by California's five largest electric utilities, E3 evaluated the operational challenges, potential solutions, and cost consequences of a higher Renewables Portfolio Standard (RPS) in California by 2030. The study benefited from technical input from the CAISO as well as independent review from a distinguished four-member advisory panel. The study utilized E3's first-in-class Renewable Energy Flexibility (REFLEX) model on ECCO International's ProMaxLT production simulation platform. The report and associated materials are available below.

Study Sponsors

Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP)
Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E)
Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD)
San Diego Gas & Electric Company (SDG&E)
Southern California Edison Company (SCE)

Advisory Panel

Dr. Dan Arvizu - Director and Chief Executive of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO

Dr. Severin Borenstein - Director of the University of California Energy Institute and Co-Director of the Energy Institute at Haas School of Business, UC Berkeley

Dr. Susan Tierney - Managing Principal at Analysis Group Inc., Boston, MA

Mr. Stephen Wright - Retired Administrator, Bonneville Power Administration; General Manager, Chelan County Public Utility District

Study Team

Energy and Environmental Economics, Inc. (E3)
ECCO International
DNV KEMA

Report Documents

    E3 Documents:
  • 3 Page Report Summary (PDF, 271KB)
  • Executive Summary: Investigating a Higher Renewables Portfolio Standard in California (PDF, 1023 KB)
  • Investigating a Higher Renewables Portfolio Standard in California (Full Report, including Technical Appendix) (PDF, 6.2 MB)
    • Advisory Panel:
  • Report of the Independent Advisory Panel Regarding the Five California Utilities' Study of Integration of Renewable Energy into California's Electric System: "Investigating a Higher Renewables Portfolio Standard in California" (PDF, 256 KB)
    • Utility Study Sponsors:
  • California Utility Brief (PDF, 683KB)

  • For more information on this study, please contact Ren Orans or Arne Olson.